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Global Peace Index

[edit] Methodology

The research team was headed by The Economist Intelligence Unit in conjunction with academics and experts in the field of peace. They measured countries' peacefulness based on wide range of indicators, 23 in all (originally 24 indicators, but one was dropped in 2008). A table of the indicators is below.[1] In the table, UCDP stands for the Uppsala Conflict Data Program maintained by the University of Uppsala in Sweden, EIU for The Economist Intelligence Unit, UNSCT for the United Nations Survey of Criminal Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, ICPS is the International Center for Prison Studies at King's College London, IISS for the International Institute for Strategic Studies publication The Military Balance 2007, SIPRI for the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Arms Transfers Database, and BICC for the Bonn International Center for Conversion.

#
↓
Indicator
↓
Source
↓
Year(s)
↓
Coding
↓
1 Number of external and internal wars fought UCDP 2000 to 2005 Total number[2]
2 Estimated deaths due to external wars UCDP 2004 to 2005 Total number[2]
3 Estimated deaths due to internal wars UCDP 2004 to 2005 Total number[2]
4 Level of organized internal conflict EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
5 Relations with neighbouring countries EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
6 Level of distrust in other citizens EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
7 Number of displaced persons as percentage of population World Bank 2003 Refugee population by percentage of the origin country's population
8 Political instability EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
9 Level of respect for human rights (political terror scale) Amnesty International 2005 Qualitative measure
10 Potential for terrorist acts EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
11 Number of homicides UNSCT 2004 and 2002 Intentional homicides, including infanticide, per 100,000 people
12 Level of violent crime EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
13 Likelihood of violent demonstrations EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
14 Number of jailed persons ICPS 2006 Persons incarcerated per 100,000 people
15 Number of police and security officers UNSCT 2002 and 2000 Civil security officers per 100,000 people[3]
16 Military expenditure as a percentage of GDP IISS 2004 Cash outlays for armed forces, as a percentage of GDP[4]
17 Number of armed services personnel IISS 2004 Full-time military personnel per 100,000 people
18 Imports of major conventional weapons SIPRI 2001 to 2005 Imports of major conventional weapons per 100,000 people[5]
19 Exports of major conventional weapons SIPRI 2001 to 2005 Exports of major conventional weapons per 100,000 people[5]
20 United Nations deployments IISS 2006 to 2007 Total number
21 Non-United Nations deployments IISS 2006 to 2007 Total number
22 Number of heavy weapons BICC 2003 Weapons per 100,000 people[6]
23 Ease of access to small arms and light weapons EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
24 Military capability or sophistication EIU 2007 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5

Indicators not already ranked on a 1 to 5 scale were converted by using the following formula: x=(x-Min(x))/(Max(x)-Min(x)) where Max(x) and Min(x) are the highest and lowest values for that indicator of the countries ranked in the index. The 0 to 1 scores that resulted were then converted to the 1 to 5 scale. Individual indicators were then weighted according to the research team's judgment of their importance. The scores were then tabulated into two weighted sub-indices: internal peace, weighted at 60% of a country's final score, and external peace, weighted at 40% of a country's final score.[7]

The main findings of the Global Peace Index are:

  • Peace correlated to indicators such as income, schooling and the level of regional integration[citation needed]
  • Peaceful countries often shared high levels of transparency of government and low corruption
  • Small, stable countries which are part of regional blocks are most likely to get a higher ranking.[8]

Statistical analysis was applied to discover more specific drivers of peace. Specifically, the research team looked for indicators that were included and excluded from the index that had high levels of correlation with the overall score and rank of countries. Among the statistically significant indicators that were not used in the analysis were the functionality of a country's government, regional integration, hostility to foreigners, importance of religion in national life, corruption, freedom of the media and GDP per capita.[9]

Notably absent from the 2007 study are Belarus, Iceland, many African nations, Mongolia, North Korea, and Afghanistan. They were not included because reliable data for the 24 indicators was not available.[10] Most of these countries are included in the 2010 Index which now ranks 149 countries worldwide.

[edit] Criticism and response to criticism

The Economist, in publishing the index, admitted that, "the index will run into some flak." Specifically, according to The Economist, the weighting of military expenditure "may seem to give heart to freeloaders: countries that enjoy peace precisely because others (often the USA) care for their defense." The true utility of the index may lie not in its specific rankings of countries now, but in how those rankings change over time, thus tracking when and how countries become more or less peaceful.[11]

The Peace Index has been criticised for not including indicators specifically relating to violence against women and children. Riane Eisler, writing in the Christian Science Monitor, argued that, "to put it mildly, this blind spot makes the index very inaccurate." She mentions a number of specific cases, including Egypt, where she claims 90% of women are subject to genital mutilation and China, where, she says, "female infanticide is still a problem," according to a 2000 UNICEF study.[12]

The Index has been widely recognized and is used by a number of organizations and think tanks worldwide including the World Bank,[13] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),[14] and Wikiprogress.[15]

Professor Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University said: "The GPI continues its pioneering work in drawing the world’s attention to the massive resources we are squandering in violence and conflict. The lives and money wasted in wars, incarcerations, weapons systems, weapons trade, and more, could be directed to ending poverty, promoting education, and protecting the environment. The GPI will not only draw attention to these crucial issues, but help us understand them and to invest productively in a more peaceful world."[16]

The Index has received endorsements from a number of major international figures, including the former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, former President of Finland and 2008 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Martti Ahtisaari, the Dalai Lama, archbishop Desmond Tutu, Muhammad Yunus, and former United States President Jimmy Carter.[17] Steve Killelea, the Australian philanthropist who conceived the idea of the Index, argues that the Index "is a wake-up call for leaders around the globe."[18]

[edit] Global Peace Index rankings

Nations considered more peaceful have lower index scores. Countries with rankings in green are in the most peaceful 20% for that year; those in red are in the bottom 20%.[19]

Country↓ 2010 Rank↓ 2010 Score↓ 2009 Rank↓ 2009 Score↓ 2008 Rank↓ 2008 Score↓ 2007 Rank↓ 2007 Score↓
New Zealand New Zealand 1 1.188 1 1.202 4 1.350 2 1.363
Iceland Iceland 2 1.212 4 1.225 1 1.176    
Japan Japan 3 1.247 7 1.272 5 1.358 5 1.413
Austria Austria 4 1.290 5 1.252 10 1.449 10 1.483
Norway Norway 5 1.322 2 1.217 3 1.343 1 1.357
Republic of Ireland Ireland 6 1.337 12 1.333 6 1.410 4 1.396
Denmark Denmark 7 1.341 2 1.217 2 1.343 3 1.377
Luxembourg Luxembourg 7 1.341 13 1.341 9 1.446    
Finland Finland 9 1.352 9 1.322 8 1.432 6 1.447
Sweden Sweden 10 1.354 6 1.269 13 1.468 7 1.478
Slovenia Slovenia 11 1.358 9 1.322 16 1.491 15 1.539
Czech Republic Czech Republic 12 1.360 11 1.328 17 1.501 13 1.524
Portugal Portugal 13 1.366 14 1.348 7 1.412 9 1.481
Canada Canada 14 1.392 8 1.311 11 1.451 8 1.481
Qatar Qatar 15 1.394 16 1.392 33 1.694 30 1.702
Germany Germany 16 1.398 16 1.392 14 1.475 12 1.523
Belgium Belgium 17 1.400 15 1.359 15 1.485 11 1.498
Switzerland Switzerland 18 1.424 18 1.393 12 1.465 14 1.526
Australia Australia 19 1.467 19 1.476 27 1.652 25 1.664
Hungary Hungary 20 1.495 27 1.575 18 1.576 18 1.575
Slovakia Slovakia 21 1.536 24 1.539 20 1.576 17 1.571
Malaysia Malaysia 22 1.539 26 1.561 37 1.721 37 1.744
Hong Kong Hong Kong         23 1.608 23 1.6570
Oman Oman 23 1.561 21 1.520 25 1.612 22 1.641
Uruguay Uruguay 24 1.568 25 1.557 21 1.606 24 1.661
Spain Spain 25 1.588 28 1.577 30 1.683 21 1.633
Costa Rica Costa Rica 26 1.590 29 1.578 34 1.701 31 1.702
Netherlands Netherlands 27 1.610 22 1.531 22 1.607 20 1.620
Chile Chile 28 1.616 20 1.481 19 1.576 16 1.568
Poland Poland 29 1.618 32 1.599 31 1.687 27 1.683
Singapore Singapore 30 1.624 23 1.533 29 1.673 29 1.692
United Kingdom United Kingdom 31 1.631 35 1.647 49 1.801    
France France 32 1.636 30 1.579 36 1.707 34 1.729
Botswana Botswana 33 1.641 34 1.643 46 1.792 42 1.786
Laos Laos 34 1.661 45 1.701 51 1.810    
Republic of China Republic of China (Taiwan) 35 1.664 37 1.652 44 1.779 36 1.731
Bhutan Bhutan 36 1.665 40 1.667 26 1.616 19 1.611
Tunisia Tunisia 37 1.678 44 1.698 47 1.797 39 1.762
Vietnam Vietnam 38 1.691 39 1.664 37 1.720 35 1.729
Kuwait Kuwait 39 1.693 42 1.680 45 1.786 46 1.818
Italy Italy 40 1.701 36 1.648 28 1.653 33 1.724
Croatia Croatia 41 1.707 49 1.741 60 1.926 67 2.030
Lithuania Lithuania 42 1.713 43 1.687 41 1.723 43 1.788
South Korea South Korea 43 1.715 33 1.627 32 1.691 32 1.719
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 44 1.739 40 1.667 42 1.745 38 1.747
Romania Romania 45 1.749 31 1.591 24 1.611 26 1.682
Estonia Estonia 46 1.751 38 1.661 35 1.702 28 1.684
Mozambique Mozambique 47 1.779 53 1.765 50 1.803 50 1.909
Ghana Ghana 48 1.781 52 1.761 40 1.723 40 1.765
Egypt Egypt 49 1.784 54 1.773 69 1.987 73 2.068
Bulgaria Bulgaria 50 1.785 56 1.775 57 1.903 54 1.936
Zambia Zambia 51 1.813 58 1.779 53 1.856 53 1.930
Malawi Malawi 51 1.813 47 1.711 73 2.024 68 2.038
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 53 1.818            
Latvia Latvia 54 1.827 54 1.773 39 1.723 47 1.848
Tanzania Tanzania 55 1.832 59 1.796 58 1.919 57 1.966
Libya Libya 56 1.839 46 1.710 61 1.927 58 1.967
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 57 1.852 71 1.905 81 2.062    
Morocco Morocco 58 1.861 63 1.811 63 1.954 48 1.893
Namibia Namibia 59 1.864 65 1.841 77 2.042 64 2.003
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 60 1.873 50 1.755 66 1.974 75 2.089
Panama Panama 61 1.878 59 1.798 48 1.797 45 1.798
Greece Greece 62 1.887 57 1.778 54 1.867 44 1.791
The Gambia Gambia 63 1.890            
Nicaragua Nicaragua 64 1.924 61 1.801 59 1.919 66 2.020
Albania Albania 65 1.925 75 1.925 79 2.044    
Moldova Moldova 66 1.938 75 1.925 83 2.091 72 2.059
Indonesia Indonesia 67 1.946 67 1.853 68 1.983 78 2.111
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 68 1.948 61 1.801 64 1.964 71 2.059
Jordan Jordan 68 1.948 64 1.832 65 1.969 63 1.997
Bahrain Bahrain 70 1.956 69 1.881 74 2.025 62 1.995
Argentina Argentina 71 1.962 66 1.851 56 1.895 52 1.923
Cuba Cuba 72 1.964 68 1.856 62 1.954 59 1.968
Swaziland Swaziland 73 1.966            
Gabon Gabon 74 1.981 51 1.758 55 1.878 56 1.952
Rwanda Rwanda 75 2.012 86 2.027 76 2.030    
Cyprus Cyprus 76 2.013 48 1.737 52 1.847 51 1.915
Madagascar Madagascar 77 2.019 72 1.912 43 1.770 41 1.766
Paraguay Paraguay 77 2.019 73 1.916 70 1.997 55 1.946
Senegal Senegal 79 2.031 80 1.984 71 2.011 65 2.017
People's Republic of China People's Republic of China 80 2.034 74 1.921 67 1.981 60 1.980
Bolivia Bolivia 81 2.037 81 1.990 78 2.043 69 2.052
Nepal Nepal 82 2.044            
Brazil Brazil 83 2.048 85 2.022 90 2.168 83 2.173
Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia 83 2.048 88 2.039 87 2.119 82 2.170
United States United States of America 85 2.056 83 2.015 97 2.227 96 2.317
Angola Angola 86 2.057 100 2.105 110 2.364 112 2.587
Bangladesh Bangladesh 87 2.058 90 2.045 86 2.118 86 2.219
Peru Peru 89 2.067 79 1.972 80 2.046 70 2.056
Serbia Serbia 90 2.071 78 1.951 85 2.110 84 2.181
Guyana Guyana 91 2.095            
Mongolia Mongolia 92 2.101 89 2.040 88 2.155    
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 93 2.103 70 1.890 82 2.069 74 2.071
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 94 2.107 87 2.035 98 2.230 94 2.286
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 95 2.113 84 2.018 72 2.018 61 1.995
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 95 2.113 93 2.059 95 2.224 88 2.223
Ukraine Ukraine 97 2.115 82 2.010 84 2.096 80 2.150
Jamaica Jamaica 98 2.138 102 2.111 96 2.226 81 2.164
Liberia Liberia 99 2.148            
Uganda Uganda 100 2.165 103 2.140 114 2.391 104 2.489
Ecuador Ecuador 101 2.185 109 2.211 100 2.274 87 2.219
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 102 2.192 106 2.202 117 2.417    
El Salvador El Salvador 103 2.195 94 2.068 89 2.163 89 2.244
Iran Iran 104 2.202 99 2.104 105 2.341 97 2.320
Belarus Belarus 105 2.204 98 2.103 94 2.194    
Cameroon Cameroon 106 2.210 95 2.073 92 2.182 76 2.093
Mexico Mexico 107 2.216 108 2.209 93 2.191 79 2.125
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 107 2.216 104 2.167 108 2.357 90 2.246
Mali Mali 109 2.240 96 2.086 99 2.238    
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 110 2.242 106 2.202 111 2.377 110 2.542
Cambodia Cambodia 111 2.252 105 2.179 91 2.179 85 2.197
Guatemala Guatemala 112 2.258 111 2.218 103 2.328 93 2.285
Armenia Armenia 113 2.266            
Haiti Haiti 114 2.270 116 2.330 109 2.362    
Syria Syria 115 2.274 92 2.049 75 2.027 77 2.106
Algeria Algeria 116 2.277 110 2.212 112 2.378 107 2.503
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 117 2.295 101 2.110 102 2.302    
Côte d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire 118 2.297 117 2.342 122 2.451 113 2.638
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 119 2.367 114 2.327 101 2.287 101 2.448
Kenya Kenya 120 2.369 113 2.266 119 2.429 91 2.258
South Africa South Africa 121 2.380 123 2.437 116 2.412 99 2.399
Venezuela Venezuela 122 2.387 120 2.381 123 2.505 102 2.453
Mauritania Mauritania 123 2.389 124 2.478 120 2.435    
Thailand Thailand 124 2.393 118 2.353 118 2.424 105 2.491
Honduras Honduras 125 2.395 112 2.265 104 2.335 98 2.390
Turkey Turkey 126 2.420 121 2.389 115 2.403 92 2.272
Ethiopia Ethiopia 127 2.444 128 2.551 121 2.439 103 2.479
India India 128 2.516 122 2.433 107 2.355 109 2.530
Yemen Yemen 129 2.573 119 2.363 106 2.352 95 2.309
Philippines Philippines 130 2.574 114 2.327 113 2.385 100 2.428
Burundi Burundi 131 2.577            
Myanmar Myanmar 132 2.580 126 2.501 126 2.590 108 2.524
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 133 2.621 125 2.485 125 2.584 111 2.575
Lebanon Lebanon 134 2.639 132 2.718 132 2.840 114 2.662
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 135 2.678 134 2.736 124 2.513 106 2.495
Central African Republic Central African Republic 136 2.753 133 2.733 134 2.857    
Nigeria Nigeria 137 2.756 129 2.602 129 2.724 117 2.898
Colombia Colombia 138 2.787 130 2.645 130 2.757 116 2.770
North Korea North Korea 139 2.855 131 2.717 133 2.850    
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 140 2.925 139 2.888 128 2.707    
Chad Chad 141 2.964 138 2.880 135 3.007    
Georgia (country) Georgia 142 2.970            
Russia Russia 143 3.013 136 2.750 131 2.777 118 2.903
Israel Israel 144 3.019 141 3.035 136 3.052 119 3.033
Pakistan Pakistan 145 3.050 137 2.859 127 2.694 115 2.697
Sudan Sudan 146 3.125 140 2.922 138 3.189 120 3.182
Afghanistan Afghanistan 147 3.252 143 3.285 137 3.126    
Somalia Somalia 148 3.390 142 3.257 139 3.293    
Iraq Iraq 149 3.406 144 3.341 140 3.514 121 3.437
Note: There have been changes to the methodology for the 2010 data.[20]

 

 


 

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Introduction    World Top of Page   
Background:
Globally, the 20th century was marked by: (a) two devastating world wars; (b) the Great Depression of the 1930s; (c) the end of vast colonial empires; (d) rapid advances in science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (US) to the landing on the moon; (e) the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; (f) a sharp rise in living standards in North America, Europe, and Japan; (g) increased concerns about the environment, including loss of forests, shortages of energy and water, the decline in biological diversity, and air pollution; (h) the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and (i) the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower. The planet's population continues to explode: from 1 billion in 1820, to 2 billion in 1930, 3 billion in 1960, 4 billion in 1974, 5 billion in 1988, and 6 billion in 2000. For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth in science and technology raises both hopes (e.g., advances in medicine) and fears (e.g., development of even more lethal weapons of war).
   Geography    World Top of Page   
Map references:
Physical Map of the World, Political Map of the World, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total: 510.072 million sq km
land: 148.94 million sq km
water: 361.132 million sq km
note: 70.8% of the world's surface is water, 29.2% is land
Area - comparative:
land area about 16 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
the land boundaries in the world total 250,472 km (not counting shared boundaries twice); two nations, China and Russia, each border 14 other countries
note: 43 nations and other areas are landlocked, these include: Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe; two of these, Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan, are doubly landlocked
Coastline:
356,000 km
note: 98 nations and other entities are islands that border no other countries, they include: American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Baker Island, Barbados, Bassas da India, Bermuda, Bouvet Island, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Clipperton Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Comoros, Cook Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominica, Europa Island, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Howland Island, Iceland, Jamaica, Jan Mayen, Japan, Jarvis Island, Jersey, Johnston Atoll, Juan de Nova Island, Kingman Reef, Kiribati, Madagascar, Maldives, Malta, Isle of Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Midway Islands, Montserrat, Nauru, Navassa Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Paracel Islands, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tromelin Island, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Virgin Islands, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna, Taiwan
Maritime claims:
a variety of situations exist, but in general, most countries make the following claims measured from the mean low-tide baseline as described in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: territorial sea - 12 nm , contiguous zone - 24 nm , and exclusive economic zone - 200 nm ; additional zones provide for exploitation of continental shelf resources and an exclusive fishing zone; boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm
Climate:
two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones form a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates
Terrain:
the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540 m
note: in the oceanic realm, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the lowest point, lying -10,924 m below the surface of the Pacific Ocean
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Natural resources:
the rapid depletion of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address
Land use:
arable land: 10.73%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 88.27% (2001)
Irrigated land:
2,714,320 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)
Environment - current issues:
large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion
Geography - note:
the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13-billion-year age estimated for the universe
   People    World Top of Page   
Population:
6,446,131,400 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.8% (male 919,726,623; female 870,468,158)
15-64 years: 64.9% (male 2,117,230,183; female 2,066,864,970)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 207,903,775; female 263,627,270)
note: some countries do not maintain age structure information, thus a slight discrepancy exists between the total world population and the total for world age structure (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.6 years
male: 27 years
female: 28.2 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.14% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
20.15 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 50.11 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.33 years
male: 62.73 years
female: 66.04 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.6 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Religions:
Christians 32.84% (of which Roman Catholics 17.34%, Protestants 5.78%, Orthodox 3.44%, Anglicans 1.27%), Muslims 19.9%, Hindus 13.29%, Buddhists 5.92%, Sikhs 0.39%, Jews 0.23%, other religions 12.63%, non-religious 12.44%, atheists 2.36% (2003 est.)
Languages:
Chinese, Mandarin 13.69%, Spanish 5.05%, English 4.84%, Hindi 2.82%, Portuguese 2.77%, Bengali 2.68%, Russian 2.27%, Japanese 1.99%, German, Standard 1.49%, Chinese, Wu 1.21% (2004 est.)
note: percents are for "first language" speakers only
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77%
male: 83%
female: 71% (1995 est.)
   Government    World Top of Page   
Administrative divisions:
271 nations, dependent areas, and other entities
Legal system:
all members of the UN are parties to the statute that established the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court
   Economy    World Top of Page   
Economy - overview:
Global output rose by 4.9% in 2004, led by China (9.1%), Russia (6.7%), and India (6.2%). The other 14 successor nations of the USSR and the other old Warsaw Pact nations again experienced widely divergent growth rates; the three Baltic nations continued as strong performers, in the 7% range of growth. Growth results posted by the major industrial countries varied from a small gain in Italy (1.3%) to a strong gain by the United States (4.4%). The developing nations also varied in their growth results, with many countries facing population increases that erode gains in output. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology. Internally, the central government often finds its control over resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, in Iraq, in Indonesia, and in Canada. Externally, the central government is losing decisionmaking powers to international bodies, notably the European Union. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition of 75 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal problems and priorities, the industrialized countries devote insufficient resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least from an economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while paving the way for an integrated economic powerhouse, poses economic risks because of varying levels of income and cultural and political differences among the participating nations. The terrorist attacks on the US on 11 September 2001 accentuate a further growing risk to global prosperity, illustrated, for example, by the reallocation of resources away from investment to anti-terrorist programs. The opening of war in March 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq added new uncertainties to global economic prospects. After the coalition victory, the complex political difficulties and the high economic cost of establishing domestic order in Iraq became major global problems that continued into 2005.
GDP:
GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power parity - $55.5 trillion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $8,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 32%
services: 64% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA %
highest 10%: NA %
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
developed countries 1% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 60% typically; national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from declining prices in Japan to hyperinflation in several Third World countries (2004 est.)
Labor force:
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment
Industries:
dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental problems
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
15.29 trillion kWh (2002 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
14.28 trillion kWh (2002 est.)
Electricity - exports:
500.8 billion kWh (2002 est.)
Electricity - imports:
497.6 billion kWh (2002 est.)
Oil - production:
76.01 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
77.04 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
1.025 trillion bbl (1 January 2002 est.)
Natural gas - production:
2.637 trillion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.599 trillion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
693.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
718.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
161.2 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Exports:
$8.819 trillion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
Exports - partners:
US 16.4%, Germany 7.9%, China 5.5%, UK 5.1%, France 5.1%, Japan 4.6% (2003)
Imports:
$8.754 trillion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
Imports - partners:
US 10.1%, Germany 9.5%, China 7.8%, Japan 6.6%, France 4.8% (2003)
Debt - external:
$12.7 trillion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$154 billion official development assistance (ODA) (2004)
   Communications    World Top of Page   
Telephones - main lines in use:
843,923,500 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
NA
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Television broadcast stations:
NA
Internet users:
604,111,719 (2002 est.)
   Transportation    World Top of Page   
Railways:
total: 1,115,205 km
broad gauge: 257,481 km
standard gauge: 671,413 km
narrow gauge: 186,311 km (2003)
Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
Ports and harbors:
Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, Mina' al Ahmadi (Kuwait), New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama
   Military    World Top of Page   
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
aggregate real expenditure on arms worldwide in 1999 remained at approximately the 1998 level, about three-quarters of a trillion dollars (1999 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
roughly 2% of gross world product (1999 est.)
   Transnational Issues    World Top of Page   
Disputes - international:
stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 325 international land boundaries separate the 192 independent states and 73 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting in sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; maritime states have claimed limits and have so far established over 130 maritime boundaries and joint development zones to allocate ocean resources and to provide for national security at sea; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary in intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; most disputes over the alignment of political boundaries are confined to short segments and are today less common and less hostile than borderland, resource, and territorial disputes; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries, however, encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation around the world; disputes over islands at sea or in rivers frequently form the source of territorial and boundary conflict; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially petroleum) resources, fisheries, and arable land; nonetheless, most nations cooperate to clarify their international boundaries and to resolve territorial and resource disputes peacefully; regional discord directly affects the sustenance and welfare of local populations, often leaving the world community to cope with resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, deforestation, and desertification
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that in December 2003 there was a global population of 9.7 million refugees and as many as 25 million IDPs
Illicit drugs:
cocaine: worldwide, coca is grown on an estimated 173,450 hectares - almost exclusively in South America with 70% in Colombia; potential cocaine production during 2003 is estimated at 728 metric tons (or 835 metric tons of export quality cocaine); coca eradication programs continue in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru; 376 metric tons of export quality cocaine are documented to have been seized in 2003, and 26 metric tons disrupted (jettisoned or destroyed); consumption of export quality cocaine is estimated to have been 800 metric tons
opiates: cultivation of opium poppy occurred on an estimated 137,944 hectares in 2003 - mostly in Southwest and Southeast Asia - with 44% in Afghanistan, potentially produced 3,775 metric tons of opium, which conceivably could be converted to the equivalent of 429 metric tons of pure heroin; opium eradication programs have been undertaken in Afghanistan, Burma, Colombia, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam


 
This page was last updated on 21 April, 2005

- The Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook -